Adult cells mammals cloned four

Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process.
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Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

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Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

HONOLULU, July 22, -- The first reproducible cloning of a mammal from adult cells, which has successfully yielded three generations and more than 50 identical cloned mice, is reported in the July 23 Nature by an international team of scientists, lead by Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Ph. The distinctive cloning technology, described as the Honolulu technique, could be more viable for the production of drugs using transgenic animals than earlier techniques because of its efficiency of reproducibility and, when used in genetic and embryonic development studies, will shed new light on the cellular and molecular activities involved in aging and diseases such as cancer, AIDS, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The technology has been licensed to the biotechnology company ProBio America, Inc. The investigators anticipate that due to similarities between development in mammals the technique will be applicable to larger animals. For example, efficient and accurate cloning can improve the reliability and safety of reproducing transgenic mammals, such as cattle, pigs and sheep, that can be used in the economical production of lower cost protein-based pharmaceuticals. The technique may also be useful for cloning wild or endangered species in a controlled environment. Our method differs substantially from previous techniques.
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Dolly (sheep)

The term cloning describes a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity. The copied material, which has the same genetic makeup as the original, is referred to as a clone. Researchers have cloned a wide range of biological materials, including genes, cells, tissues and even entire organisms, such as a sheep. In nature, some plants and single-celled organisms, such as bacteria , produce genetically identical offspring through a process called asexual reproduction. In asexual reproduction, a new individual is generated from a copy of a single cell from the parent organism.
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Dolly 5 July — 14 February was a female domestic sheep , and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell , using the process of nuclear transfer. The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland , and the production of a healthy clone, therefore, proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. On Dolly's name, Wilmut stated "Dolly is derived from a mammary gland cell and we couldn't think of a more impressive pair of glands than Dolly Parton 's.
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