Postpartum hemorrhage has been defined as blood loss of around ml or more, after completing the third phase of labor. Most cases of postpartum hemorrhage occur during the first hour after birth. The most common reason for bleeding in the early hours after childbirth is uterine atony. Bleeding during delivery is usually a visual estimate that is measured by the midwife.
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Read terms. Studies that have evaluated factors associated with identification and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage have found that imprecise health care provider estimation of actual blood loss during birth and the immediate postpartum period is a leading cause of delayed response to hemorrhage. Although current data do not support any one method of quantifying blood loss as superior to another, quantification of blood loss, such as using graduated drapes or weighing, provides a more accurate assessment of actual blood loss than visual estimation; however, the effectiveness of quantitative blood loss measurement on clinical outcomes has not been demonstrated. Successful obstetric hemorrhage bundle implementation is associated with improved outcome measures related to obstetric hemorrhage. However, further research is necessary to better evaluate the particular effect of quantitative blood loss measurement in reducing maternal hemorrhage- associated morbidity in the United States. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists makes the following recommendations and conclusions: Quantitative methods of measuring obstetric blood loss have been shown to be more accurate than visual estimation in determining obstetric blood loss. Studies that have compared visual estimation to quantitative measurement have found that visual estimation is more likely to underestimate the actual blood loss when volumes are high and overestimate when volumes are low.
Disordered uterine bleeding can be used as a very broad term describing uterine bleeding that is irregular, heavy, or otherwise considered problematic. Historically, there is a variety of medical terminology for irregular menses; more recent terminology substitutes abnormal uterine bleeding AUB for dysfunctional uterine bleeding DUB. AUB is a diagnosis of exclusion having ruled out: genital tract pathology; systemic disease; iatrogenic causes including contraceptive hormones. The most common causes of AUB in adolescents are anovulation due to normal hyperandrogenism of adolescence or an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian HPO axis that resolves over time. It is important to rule out both normal or abnormal pregnancy as well as hemodynamic compromise early on when evaluating a teen reporting any menstrual irregularity.
Datasets analyzed during the current study are presented in the main paper or as additional supporting files. Please note that the page numbers herein refer to the original submission file and not the final print version. The aim of this systematic review is to determine for methods of measuring MBL: ability to distinguish between normal and heavy menstrual bleeding HMB ; practicalities and limitations in the research setting; and suitability for diagnosing HMB in routine clinical practice.